Bitcoin is an internet protocol that enables the transfer of value over a communications channel like the Internet or radio. An easily understood application is decentralized digital currency; like being able to send a gold coin as easy as you send an email. But blockchain technology enables many things like a fridge that can pay for and restock itself or self-driving taxis.
Criptocoin mining is how Bitcoin transactions are validated and confirmed by the Bitcoin network. Criptocoin miners create a new block by solving a proof of work problem that is chained through cryptographic proof to the previous block.
Currently, highly specialized chips called ASICs, Application Specific Integrated Circuits, are used as Criptocoin miners.